Nature Foundation Scientifically Analyzes the Impacts of Hurricane Irma on St Maarten Coral Reefs Using Global Coral Reef Monitoring Guidelines

General Coral Cover is Reduced, Man of War Shoal Marine Protected Area Shows Greater Resilience than Reefs Outside of the Protected Area.

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Reef monitoring data has been scientifically analyzed to assess the impacts of hurricane Irma and Maria on Sint Maarten Coral Reefs following the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) guidelines. The hurricanes caused reduction in coral cover on St Maarten reefs; however reef health improved due to a decrease in coral bleaching. Unfortunately, macroalgae cover increased after the hurricanes. This high algae cover threatens coral recruitment and coral growth. Caribbean coral reefs have been deteriorated to a macro algal state due to several factors such as the die off or overfishing of herbivores (such as parrotfish), climate change, human and natural disasters. Three months after the hurricanes water quality was decreased on all our reefs, water visibility was reduced by about sixteen meters.

“Coral cover (hard corals) has been significantly reduced from 6.1 % to 3.7% since the passage of the hurricanes, which is unfortunate but expected considering the intensity of Irma. Coral cover is still higher than observed in 2016 (3.5%). Scientific research found that coral cover mostly declines the year after large hurricanes, therefore we are concerned to observe a larger reduction of coral cover for this year. The decrease in coral bleaching could be favorable for the health of our corals and is likely caused by the lower sea water temperatures and the decreased visibility after the storms. We are worried about the higher algae cover, this could deteriorate our coral reefs even more” explained Nature Foundation’s Projects Officer Melanie Meijer zu Schlochtern.

The strong surge and swells of the storms caused gorgonian corals (soft corals) and fleshy algae to be ripped of from our reefs, leading to more exposure of coral recruits, sponges and calcareous coralline algae (CCA). After the hurricanes higher carnivorous fish biomass was found on the reefs. This increase of larger fish, especially groupers and snappers, was found to be extraordinary high in the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) mostly healthy reefs, such as Proselyte Reef and Mike’s Maze. Herbivorous fish biomass did not change significantly after the hurricanes, however fewer fish species were found.

“More accessible CCA can be profitable as it is used by juvenile corals to settle on in the future and these juveniles can grow into larger corals and build our next generation of coral reefs. Larger pelagic fish can travel long distances. They may look for the best shelter against the impacts of the hurricanes and therefore moved to the reefs with the highest coral cover to find their needs”, stated Achsah Mitchell GCRMN data analyst.

tape measure in a coral reef
GCRMN method in practice

The results of the St Maarten’s reef monitoring also show the significance of protecting our reefs, as coral reefs in the Marine Protected Area performed better and are healthier, with higher coral, gorgonian coral, CCA and sponge cover compared to other St Maarten Reefs outside the protected area. Reefs outside of the Marine Protected Area had significantly more macroalgae cover than reefs within the Park. Also, greater densities of coral recruits, which indicates a greater number of healthy and reproducing corals, were found. Moreover, carnivorous fish and herbivorous fish had a greater biomass within the Marine Protected Area.

“If we do not protect our coral reefs, health, fish biomass and coral cover will decrease and our reefs will shift to a macro algae state. Algae cover was the lowest inside the Marine Protected Area, showing us the effectiveness of protecting our coral reefs. Our results demonstrate clearly the importance of our Marine Protected Area ‘Man of War Shoal’ for our fish stocks and coral reef preservation” stated Nature Foundation’s Projects Officer Melanie Meijer zu Schlochtern.

The entire country benefits from reefs with higher coral cover and lower macro algae, these reefs are also more resilient regarding disaster events, such as Hurricane Irma. “The reefs in the Marine Protected Area showed greater resilience to hurricanes than reefs outside the protected area. Especially the lower macroalgae cover makes reefs better suited for coral growth and recruitment and would therefore have a higher resilience for hurricanes and other threats. I recommend increasing coral reef protection, management and monitoring, especially within the Marine Protected Area” explained Achsah Mitchell GCRMN data analyst.

Every year, the St Maarten Nature Foundation monitors St Maarten’s coral reefs scientifically using the GCRMN method to determine the health, composition and state of St Maarten reefs. With financial support made available by the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance, the Foundation was also able to monitor and analyze the reefs after the hurricanes in 2017.

diver with tape measure in coral reef
Diver recording data with GCRMN method

Several dive sites in the Man of War Shoal Marine Protected Area and other important dive sites around the island were monitored pre-hurricanes in Augustus and post-hurricanes in December 2017. All measurements were conducted along a transect line and repeated five times on each dive site.

First, abundance and biomass of all fish species were determined, secondly the cover of reef organisms (corals) were analyzed based on photo quadrats made during the dives and photo quadrats were assessed for coral health. Monitoring is also done looking for coral recruitments (juvenile corals) and algae coverage and height. Lastly, invertebrate species were counted and water quality was measured. Results were assessed, scientifically analyzed and interpreted by GCRMN data analyst Achsah Mitchell; the full report can be downloaded here:

GCRMN SXM Report on 2017 Hurricanes – Final Report Aug2018 (PDF)

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St Maarten Nature Foundation First To Launch Online Marine Park Tag System

reef support feeSince 1997, the St. Maarten Nature Foundation, together with other islands of the Dutch Caribbean, has been the worldwide example for charging an environmental user fee to users of the national “Man of War Shoal” Marine Park. However, the current dive tag system has issues keeping up with the demand. Production costs, administration, risk management, and logistics are becoming more and more costly and time consuming.

To overcome the current issues described above for the “over the counter” divers tag, the payment method and to profit from new trends in how tourists use Internet to plan their vacations, the St. Maarten Nature Foundation has been working with Reef Support BV to develop an online payment system. The Nature Foundation is proudly the first to launch this new online system for their marine park tags.

“The online system will allow visiting divers and other Marine Park users to prepay their tags before arrival to their dive shop. With this system we hope to reduce the efforts of making “over the counter” sales of our Marine Park Diver tags. We expect not only to increase St. Maarten Nature Foundation revenue but also to save much of the valuable time of dive operators, whilst we provide our visitors with a modern, fast, and easy way to pay their tags” says Tadzio Bervoets manager of the Nature Foundation.

“The new system generates a unique tag for each user that is received by the buyer via email. Upon arrival in your dive shop, operators can check for validity through a print version, in the diver phone or by simply login into the system and scanning the QR code of the tag. After an initial marketing effort, dive operators won’t need to sell tags over the counter anymore and it will take only 3 seconds to check validity of customer’s tags” stated Ramón de León Founder and Director of Reef Support.

 “The help of the dive operators was instrumental in the past to make our Divers Tag a success, we are asking once again for the assistance of the dive operators to introduce this new system, which can only succeed with their help to spread the link of the payment page. Dive operators are asked to incorporate the link into their websites, bookings systems, and email communications with their customers. As we are trying to reduce our single-use plastics on the island, we are very happy to move to an electronic alternative to substitute the plastic Marine Park Tag”, stated Nature Foundation’s Project Officer Melanie Meijer zu Schlochtern.

The Internet based payment system is up and running and ready to be used, St Maarten Marine Park Tags can now be purchased directly online via our website or directly through Reefsupport.

Diver on the Proselyte Dive Site in the Marine Park
Diver on the Proselyte Dive Site in the Marine Park

Aruba, St. Eustatius Join Sint Maarten Nature Foundation in Conducting Shark Research Training

As part of the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance Save our Sharks Project marine conservation practitioners from St. Eustatius and Aruba joined with the Sint Maarten Nature Foundation in learning scientific research techniques related to shark conservation and research. Representatives from the St. Eustatius National Parks Office and the Aruba Arikok National Park spent a week with the Nature Foundation learning shark research methods, including shark tagging techniques, DNA sampling, biological measurements and the handling of the species. “We had an excellent week training together and learning from each other on the best ways to collect scientific data from various species of shark,” commented Sint Maarten Nature Foundation Manager and Save our Sharks Project leader Tadzio Bervoets. “Aruba and St. Eustatius are in the process of setting up their own shark research and conservation programs, so we thought it would be great for Aruba and St. Eustatius to come here to learn from the things we are doing on St. Maarten. At the same time we also learned from our colleagues and were able to add to our own data collection efforts here. Additionally, it is only through sound, properly gathered and strong information that we can continue to advocate for the protection of sharks locally and regionally,” continued Bervoets.

Both Aruba and St. Eustatius will be applying the techniques learned in St. Maarten in their own locations; “Caribbean Shark Conservation requires a regional effort, and this week was a step in the right direction,” commented Giancarlo Nunes, Research and Conservation Manager at the Arikok National Park in Aruba. “The team from St. Eustatius is very grateful for the opportunity to participate in shark research training. It was a good week with great learning experiences and we are eager to get started in St. Eustatius putting this all in practice,” commented Jessica Berkel, St. Eustatius Marine Park Manager.

The DCNA Save Our Sharks Project, funded by the Dutch National Postcode Lottery, has placed the focus on the conservation of sharks and rays in both the Caribbean and European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The project has used science, education and community outreach and lobbying to establish shark sanctuaries, initiate science programs, and educate the public on the importance of sharks in the wider Caribbean. Initial data from satellite tags deployed on Saba and St. Maarten have shown that there is significant regional movement of the species in the wider Caribbean; “We need to have more research initiatives such as our project here and in Saba and the coming projects in St. Eustatius and Aruba so that we can get a better idea on the status of the species, their migratory patterns and their local distribution in the wider Caribbean. Sharks are critical to the health of the Caribbean Sea but are also one of the most threatened Large Marine Species on the planet,” concluded Bervoets.

Shark Killed Illegally Within Man of War Shoal Marine Protected Area

dead shark on coral reef

Nature Foundation, Authorities Investigating Incident

The lifeless body of a juvenile Caribbean Reef Shark was confiscated by the Sint Maarten Nature Foundation after divers reported it on a reef just within the Man of War Shoal Marine Protected Area. The intentional hunting and harming of sharks has been made illegal in Sint Maarten Waters since 2011. Since 2012 there were 7 incidents of sharks being harmed or killed in the waters surrounding St. Maarten, two of which occurred in the Man of War Shoal Marine Park. The practice of intentionally fishing for sharks has been forbidden since October 12th 2011, when the Ministry TEATT banned the practice of intentionally poaching sharks in the territorial waters of St. Maarten. The act of trying to catch by  tracking, stalking, baiting, chasing, trapping, hooking, netting, shooting or otherwise hunting –  sharks, rays and skates is prohibited and therefore the animals may not be wounded, caught, landed, or killed. Violators may be punished with jail and a considerable fine may be issued. If Sharks are accidentally caught all steps should be taken to release the animal with as little harm as possible. The ban on intentionally harming sharks was further reinforced in June 2016 with Government announcing St. Maarten’s territorial waters as a shark sanctuary.

“It seems as if this animal was caught while fishermen were fishing illegally just inside the Marine Park at night. Instead of letting the animal go the fishermen killed the animal and threw it back on the reef. This is a complete waste and is illegal based on the protected status of sharks on the island. We have been working hard in changing the perception within the community in general and the fishing community specifically about the importance of sharks to our economy and to keeping healthy fish stock in balance,” commented Tadzio Bervoets, Nature Foundation Manager.

Previous Nature Foundation research has shown that a single live shark is worth up to USD $884,000 to the economy of the island, as is opposed to just a few dollars dead. “The majority of divers who come to the island pay top dollar to see sharks in their Natural Environment. These divers also rent cars, stay in hotels, eat at restaurants and drink in bars. Taking all of that into account and based on research conducted by the Nature Foundation a single live shark contributes $884,000 to the economy of St. Maarten annually. Sharks are an apex predator and are essential to the health of local coral reefs. If we do not have sharks we will lose our coral reef ecosystem. Sharks keep the reefs clean of unhealthy fish which in turn keeps the ecosystem in balance,”

The Nature Foundation is investigating the incident together with local law enforcement organizations.

Minister Giterson Reappoints Nature Foundation as Ecosystem Authority

St. Maarten – Vromi-Minister Miklos Chomain Giterson signed the continuation of a service level agreement recently with the Nature Foundation appointing the organization as the Ecosystem and Environmental Authority of the Country. Under the agreement, the Nature Foundation continues to act as the management and scientific authority for marine and terrestrial ecosystems in St. Maarten while at the same time maintaining its independence as a conservation NGO based on the island.

Minister Giterson and Jan Beaujon, chairman of the board of the Nature Foundation, signed the agreement during a brief ceremony at the Government Administration Building.

The national ordinance for nature management and protection requires that the Council of Ministers establishes a nature plan and appoints a management and scientific authority. That role has been bestowed on the Nature Foundation since 2014, its manager Tadzio Bervoets and his staff.

The Nature Foundation is now authorized “to make and execute all decisions pertaining to the management of the marine and terrestrial ecosystems, species management and specifically introduced species,” according to the SLA.

Part of the responsibilities include the management of the marine park, dive moorings, fisheries management and the protection of endangered species. Other tasks include sea turtle nesting and beach monitoring and reporting, animal control and surveillance and monitoring. The foundation will also assist or lead research for government and advise on request, facilitate the police and harbor authorities, and function as liaison with relevant government departments. Emergency response to for instance oil spills and disasters are also a part of the deal.

Nature Foundation manager Bervoets said that, since he started in his job eight years ago, “it has not always been an easy journey. A few times we almost had to close our doors because of the financial situation.”

Nature Foundation chairman Jan Beaujon noted that the organization has come a long way. “We have gone through twenty years of ups and down to become what we are today. The staff of the foundation is able to take care of a lot of things for the government and to manage whatever we have on our island for years to come.”

Nature Foundation Attends UNESCO Meeting in Jamaica. Push to Get Man of War Shoal Marine Park Listed as a Man and Biosphere Reserve.

Managing director of the Sint Maarten Nature Foundation Tadzio Bervoets recently attended the regional UNESCO Man and Biosphere meeting held in St. Ann, Jamaica. The meeting, hosted by the Jamaica National Commission for UNESCO, was held in order to move attending islands and their representatives to have areas listed under the Man and Biosphere (MAB) program.

The MAB Program develops the basis within the natural and social sciences for the sustainable use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the overall relationship between people and their environment. It predicts the consequences of today’s actions on tomorrow’s world and thereby increases people’s ability to efficiently manage natural resources for the well-being of both human populations and the environment.

By focusing on sites internationally recognized within the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, the MAB Programme strives to identify and assess the changes in the biosphere resulting from human and natural activities and the effects of these changes on humans and the environment, in particular in the context of climate change; study and compare the dynamic interrelationships between natural/near-natural ecosystems and socio-economic processes, in particular in the context of accelerated loss of biological diversity with unexpected consequences that impact the ability of ecosystems to continue to provide services critical for human well-being; promote the exchange and transfer of knowledge on environmental problems and solutions, and to foster environmental education for sustainable development.

Sint Maarten, through the management of the local UNESCO Office and its Secretary General Ms. Marcellia Henry, have been making steps towards getting the Man of War Shoal Marine Park listed as a Biosphere Reserve. The Nature Foundation, who will be completing the nomination form, will hope to have the submission for nomination completed by September.

Photocaption: Bervoets and other regional representatives at the UNESCO Meeting in St. Ann Jamaica.

Nature Foundation Intercepts Poachers in Marine Park, Seized Fish Donated to White and Yellow Cross Foundation

Adhering to no fishing rules of the Marine Park important to rebuilding local fish stocks

Staff of the Sint Maarten Nature Foundation intercepted the vessel Oyster, with registration number SX1438, that was found poaching illegally in the Man of War Shoal National Marine Park at the location 17 ̊-59.511 N and 63 ̊-03.327 W close to the ‘Mike’s Maze’ dive site. The Spanish-speaking Fishermen were approached but did not comply with the instructions of Nature Foundation staff. The vessel left the area but was followed by the Marine Park patrol vessel and the fishermen were met by police officers and the coastguard.

“As the legally mandated Management Authority for the Man of War Shoal Marine Park we regularly patrol the area and have authority to respond to illegal activities in the Marine Park. It is listed within the rules of the Marine Park that no fishing is allowed. We have a close working relationship with fishermen when it comes to the Man of War Shoal Marine Park and would like this to continue. However if we notice illegal activities within the Marine Park those will be addressed,” read a Nature Foundation statement.

The boundaries of the Marine Park are between 18̊ ̊N and 17 ̊-57.0 N and 63 ̊-01.03 W and 63 ̊-04.05 W, in an area better known as “the Proselyte Reef Complex “.  This area includes the island’s most ecologically and economical important marine habitat, including extensive coral reef areas and seagrass beds. The Man of War Shoal Marine Park, officially established on the 30th of December 2010, is a home and migratory stop over or breeding site for 3 IUCN Red List Species, 10 CITES Appendix I species and 89 Appendix II species. It is an area with a relatively healthy population of marine mammals including migratory whales and dolphins, numerous species of shark, sea turtles and numerous fish species. Studies conducted by the St. Maarten Nature Foundation have shown that biodiversity in this area, particularly coral reef density, is high and the economic goods and services which the ecosystem provides are in excess of fifty million dollars annually.” It has been shown that no-fishing areas have resulted in an increase in fish stock. Therefore it is also in the interest of fishermen to adhere to the no catch rules of the Marine Park,” continued the Foundation.

The case is being dealt with by law enforcement authorities. The confiscated fish was donated to the White and Yellow Cross Foundation Sister Basilia home and Home for the Elderly. The Nature Foundation would like to thank Dive Adventures for notifying the Nature Foundation.

Caption 1: Vessel fishing illegally in the Marine Park

Caption 2: Illegally caught fish in the Marine Park

70-95% of Some Coral Species on Sint Maarten Reefs Suffered Extreme Hurricane Damage

The St. Maarten Nature Foundation has been continuously monitoring coral reefs both inside and outside of the Man of War Shoal Marine Protected Area in order to determine the impact of Hurricane Irma. Intense impacts have been recorded on certain coral species and on the reef, however also some reef recovering has already been recorded.

Acropora coral (Elkhorn and Staghorn) were hit the hardest by Hurricane Irma: this particular group of species is very prone to intensive water movement and has caused large pieces to break off. Besides the major break-off of coral fragments, also large die-offs have been recorded in those particular coral colonies. Many parts of especially Elkhorn coral colonies (A. palmata) died, due to direct impacts of the swell or sediment cover, light reduction or water quality reduction.

About 80% of Elkhorn (A. palmata) coral colonies are affected by and have died off directly and indirectly due to Hurricane Irma on St Maarten Reefs. Staghorn (A. cervicornis) coral colonies have shown even more damage due to the storm surge; hardly any coral fragment have been found back and entire colonies have been wiped out. 95% of the Staghorn coral colonies have been destroyed by Hurricane Irma. No colonies have been found  or only small fragments remain.

The loss of these Acropora species will have large negative impacts on our reefs due to their importance as reef builders. Acropora corals decreased tremendously in the 1980’s and are currently already listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems and Species. Until the 1980’s Acropora coral species dominated the near shore zone of many Caribbean islands, including Sint Maarten. Even before Hurricane Irma these coral reef zones have almost disappeared from most islands in the region due to diseases, climate change, pollution and habitat destruction. The increased loss of these Acropora corals due to Hurricane Irma will have even larger negative effects on biodiversity, biomass of fishes, coastal protection and tourism.

Also Pillar coral (Dendrogyra cylindrus) colonies have been significantly affected by Hurricane Irma. Pillar colonies have been reduced with about 70% due to Irma. Colonies at the dive sites Mikes Maze and Hen and Chicks which were known to reach up to five feet are now reduced to not much more than a foot.

In order to qualitatively assess the reefs and the Man of War Shoal Marine Park, the Nature Foundation will start up reef monitoring according to the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Protocol (GCRMN) in the coming month. Data from before Hurricane Irma and data from last year will be used to determine the detailed impacts and damages on St. Maarten reefs.

Picture 1: An Elkhorn (Acropora palmata) coral damaged over 80% due to Hurricane Irma at the islands Hen and Chicks.

Picture 2: Only a little piece of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) coral is found alive in the Marine Park since the passage of Hurricane Irma.

Picture 3: An Elkhorn (Acropora palmata) coral with many broken off branches found in the Man of War Shoal Marine Park.

Picture 4: Pillar (Dendrogyra cylindrus) coral colony which is chopped down by 70%.

Nature Foundation Records Worrisome Red Algae Outbreak on St Maarten Reefs

The St. Maarten Nature Foundation has been continuously monitoring the reefs for their health and to assess the underwater damage caused by Hurricane Irma. During the reef surveys held at the beginning of November, several shallower dive sites started to show a worrisome outbreak of red algae species. Especially on reefs shallower than 35 feet in depth large red algae blooms were recorded in the Marine Park and on other reefs around the island.

Blooms of red algae can hamper the regrowth of several reef species which were damaged due to hurricane Irma’s swells. Red algae are strong competitors and their fast growth rate will leave no space for important reef builders such as corals and sponges to recover. Algae blooms can be an indicator for water quality, showing a decrease in the water quality on St Maarten reefs and surroundings. Certain red algae species can also be a health issue when very abundant and close to shore. The state of our reefs is especially now worrisome as already 50% of the reef has been damaged wby Hurricane Irma.

An outbreak of red algae is probably due to increased nutrients feeding the algae and causing it to bloom. Increased nutrient input could be associated with hurricane passage or due to pollution such as sewage outflow. High hurricane winds mix the ocean water bringing nutrients from the deep, at a time when warm summer water are often nutrient depleted. The nutrients spur algae to grow, creating large blooms of algae. However, the red algae outbreak could be also related to the recent pump out of the Great Salt Pond, causing polluted water with high nutrients to flow to our reefs.

The Nature Foundation would like to warn all people, businesses and establishments to be sure no sewage flows are going into the ocean or lagoon to prevent further water deterioration.

 

Picture 2: Amphiroa and Dasya red algae species growing on parts of Elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata).

 

Picture 3: Red algae blooms found at the dive site ‘Fort Amsterdam/Little Bay’.

Majority of Nature Foundation Marine Research Projects completely destroyed by Irma; Starts GoFundMe to Restart Coral Nursery Project

On the 6th of September powerful category 5+ hurricane ‘Irma’ did not spare the underwater world with her large waves and strong underwater motion and surge. Scientific in-water Marine Research conducted the Nature Foundation including the Coral Nursery, Conch and Seagrass Research and the Acoustic Receivers are totally damaged or completely lost.

The Coral Nursery was part of a three year RESCQ project (Restoration of Ecosystem Services and Coral Reef Quality) funded by the European Union Best 2.0 Program in order to restore Elkhorn (Acropora palmata) and Staghorn (A. cervicornis) coral reef zones by growing coral fragments in a nursery and transplanting corals at selected restoration sites. Nine coral ladders were located at the dive site ‘The Bridge’ filled with coral fragments. Out of the 255 fragments growing in the nursery only two little fragments have been found back. The strong currents and surge probably pushed the coral ladders down or tore them apart, leaving them covered under sand and sediment. More than one year of intensive research efforts has been totally lost.

Recently the Nature Foundation started a juvenile Queen Conch growth experiment on native and invasive seagrass beds in order to determine nutrition differences for conch growth. The project was a collaboration with Ecological Professionals, Wageningen University and the Caribbean Netherlands Science Institute and funded by Statia Terminals, NuStar Energy L.P. and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (EZ). Research structures, temperature and light loggers and tagged conch are destroyed and disappeared from the research locations at the Dry-dock and Barrel mooring in Simpson Bay. Large amounts of mainly invasive seagrass and many juvenile conch have been stripped off, disappeared or killed due to the hurricane.

Eight acoustic receivers were located in St Maarten waters in order to detect the movement pattern of sharks. For this study the Nature Foundation was collaborating with leading scientist Dr. Erwin Winter from Wageningen Marine Research and the Save our Sharks project funded by the Dutch Postcode Lottery. Since the hurricane no acoustic receiver or its structures have been found back so far and all receivers are definitely lost.

Although the Nature Foundation has escaped large-scale damage to their infrastructure with the Office, Marine Park Patrol Vessel and Warehouse receiving minimal damage, the Research Projects are non-existent since the passing of Irma.

The Foundation is looking into major funding options in order to rebuild the marine research set-ups and restart reef and marine monitoring efforts. Especially the Coral Nursery is very much needed, as corals on the reef have been damaged and destroyed by direct and indirect impacts of the massive hurricane. Topper’s Restaurant has generously opened a Go Fund Me page in order to help the Nature Foundation rebuild their Coral Nursery; www.gofundme.com/rebuild-st-maartens-coral-nursery

Picture: Total destruction of Nature Foundation’s Coral Nursery after Hurricane Irma passed.